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SOME GOSPEL TRUTHS OPENED,
ACCORDING TO THE SCRIPTURES;

OR,
THE DIVINE AND HUMAN NATURE OF CHRIST JESUS;

HIS COMING INTO THE WORLD; HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS, DEATH, RESURRECTION, ASCENSION, INTERCESSION, AND SECOND COMING TO JUDGMENT, PLAINLY DEMONSTRATED AND PROVED.

AND ALSO,
Answers to several Questions, with profitable Directions to stand fast in the Doctrine of Jesus the Son of MARY, against those blustering Storms of the Devil's Temptations, which do at this Day, like so many Scorpions, break loose from the bottomless Pit, to bite and torment those that have not tasted the Vertue of Jesus, by the Revelation of the Spirit of God.

JOHN BUNYAN, of BEDFORD,
By the grace of GOD, preacher of the GOSPEL of his dear SON.
Published for the good of God's chosen ones, by that unworthy servant of CHRIST

'Jesus saith, - - I am the way, and the truth and the life: no man cometh unto the Father but by me.'--John 14:6
'Neither is there salvation in any other.'--Acts 4:12

EDITOR'S ADVERTISEMENT.

This was the first work published by the indefatigable servant of Christ, John Bunyan; and he modestly sought the patronage of his brethren in the ministry, and Messrs. Burton, Spencly and Child wrote prefatory recommendations. The latter of these, Mr. John Child, for some temporal advantages afterwards conformed; and became notorious for having, in a fit of despair, destroyed himself.

Well might Bunyan in this treatise, call the early period of his ministry 'distracted and dangerous times,' in which many a poor sincere inquirer stood 'tottering and shaking,' bewildered with the new din of sectaries, each boldly declaring his divine authority. In the midst of this storm of contending opinions, Bunyan stood forth conspicuously to declare 'Gospel Truths'; and to open and vindicate them these discourses were written. To enable the reader to understand and appreciate them, it will be needful to take a rapid glance at the state of society which then prevailed. The frivolities of dress and laxity of morals introduced by James the First, increased by the mixture of French fashions under the popish wife of Charles the First, had spread their debauching influence throughout the kingdom. George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, in an address 'To such as follow the world's fashions,' gives an almost incredible description of the tomfooleries of dress which prevailed. 'How doth the devil garnish himself, and the people are carried away with vanity--women plaiting their hair--men and women powdering it, making their backs like bags of meal. The men having store of ribbands of divers colours about their waists, and at their knees, and in their hats. The women with their spots on their noses, cheeks, and foreheads--rings on their fingers--cuffs double, like a butcher in his white sleeves--ribbands about their arms, hands, back, waists, knees--and hats like unto fidlers' bags--is not this the devil's adorning?'[1]

At this period the iron hand of tyranny and oppression over the worship of God had been suddenly paralyzed. The ruinous penalties, and even capital punishments, which had enforced attendance on a form of common prayer, and a pretence to believe articles, creeds, and catechisms, ordained by Acts of Parliament, were removed. Man, by nature averse to religious inquiries, was now stimulated, under a threat of eternal ruin, personally and individually, to seek for truth and salvation. At this time a little persecuted band of puritans had directed every inquirer after salvation to the sacred Scriptures, which alone were able to make wise unto salvation, by the aid of the Holy Spirit enlightening their minds to understand, and subduing their wills to receive those eternal truths. But a new light was now discovered--that which lighteneth every man that cometh into the world; and which, it was alleged, would alone, if cherished and followed, lead the honest inquirer into all truth. National religion, so called, had been propagated at an incredible expense of treasure, and by the sacrifice of the best blood in the country, to the shrine of infallibility--called uniformity. A hireling priesthood had limited to themselves the right to teach men how to be Christians. The result of all this was clearly seen, when the people were driven to think and choose for themselves. Their minds were in darkness and confusion, which quickly produced the most whimsical, mischievous, and even ludicrous opinions, mixed with truth.

National establishments, whether Pagan, Mohamedan, or Christian--be this latter either Greek, Roman, or Protestant--have a direct and natural tendency to repress and prevent personal inquiries, lest they should interfere with uniformity in faith and worship; which is a presumed incapability of error on the part of those who impose them. Systems, which IN FACT, although not in words, claim infallibility, by requiring implicit and absolute submission, must have had a direct tendency to hoodwink and blind the people; nor can we be surprised, that when their eyes were first opened, they saw indistinctly; or, to use a scripture phrase, 'men as trees walking.' They utterly failed in preparing the mind to receive divine truth, or in furnishing an antidote to extravagant speculations in religion.

The state of the millions can hardly be conceived; they had paid a priest to think on religion for them--to read the Bible for them--and to pray for them. They had paid the church to make them Christians--to confirm them--to forgive their sins--and to bury their bodies in sure and certain hope of heaven. From this fatal sleep of ignorance and error, they were aroused by itinerant preachers; many of whom were men of education, of irreproachable morals, and most benevolent habits. They went forth upon their mission at a fearful sacrifice of comfort, property, health, and even of life; calling all to repentance, and to obey the light within--to follow on to perfection in this life--and, at the same time, denouncing all hireling ministers. They were called in derision, Familists, Ranters, Quakers, New Lights, &c. The old leaven, which had led the people without inquiry to follow the priests, now operated on multitudes to follow those ardent and self-denying leaders. The Familists, or family of love, were consistent in their lives;--considered every day a sabbath, and baptized none under thirty years of age. The Ranters mingled a little truth with much error--abused their Christian liberty--and lived licentiously, and were a scandal to religion. The Quakers--so called from their trembling agitation when under a powerful sense of eternal realities, and because, in preaching, they admonished their hearers to tremble and quake at the word of God--considered the sacraments as mere ceremonies, inconsistent with spiritual worship--lived and dressed with the utmost simplicity, and took the lead in attacking error at all risks.

These itinerants went through the whole length and breadth of the land, and in every place of public resort they made proclamation. In fairs, markets, meetings, assizes, and steeple-houses, their voice was heard denouncing evil and exhorting to righteousness. Short weights and deceit were declared an abomination to the Lord, in fairs and markets. Every religious delusion was exposed in meetings and parish churches. The journals of George Fox, and others, are exceedingly interesting in recounting their hazardous adventures, zeal, and no ordinary degree of ready wit and talent. Some of these itinerants came to Bedford, and in the parish church, called 'the steeple-house,' in Bedford town, on the 23d of May, 1656, they met John Bunyan, probably after he had been ministering there. With him they held a public disputation or controversy, to which allusions are made by both parties,[2] and in Bunyan they met a master spirit who confounded them. The subjects in dispute were of the deepest importance--the work of the Holy Spirit in conversion--the authority of the Bible--the perfection of holiness in this life--and whether it was lawful to perform the work of the ministry for hire.

After a very careful perusal of E. Burrough's answers to Bunyan, it is gratifying to find that the whole truth is set forth in the following pages;--some of the facts are worthy of a careful notice. The Baptists and Independents had long existed in this country, and had published confessions of faith. The Ranters and Familists existed not as sects but in name, and soon disappeared. The Quakers, who were confounded with the Ranters and Familists, were not at this time formed into a society; nor had they published any book of discipline. The Society of Friends were some years after united, and have been one of the most useful as well as the brightest ornaments to this kingdom. The works of Fox, Penn, Barclay, and others, with their books of discipline, and yearly epistles, shew that they, to a very great extent, agree with Bunyan in his sentiments; and it is well worthy of notice that, in the latter part of his life, when he wrote his admirable treatise on the resurrection of the dead, he does not accuse the Society of Friends with holding any false opinions. Bunyan is clear and scriptural upon the 'Light within,' or that conscience of right and wrong which all possess to their condemnation--as distinguished from the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, the gift of God to his people, revealing in them the pardon of sin and hope of glory, by opening their understandings to receive the truths of the Bible. When Ann Blakeley bid Bunyan 'throw away the Scriptures,' he replied, 'No, for then the devil would be too hard for me.'[3] And when accused of being a hireling priest, how triumphant was the reply--it ought to be printed in letters of gold. He was charged with making merchandize of souls, and he answered--'Friend, dost thou speak this from thy own knowledge, or did any other tell thee so? However, that spirit that led thee out this way is a lying spirit. For though I be poor, and of no repute in the world, as to outward things; yet through grace I have learned by the example of the apostle, to preach the truth; and also to work with my hands, both for my own living, and for those that are with me, when I have opportunity. And I trust that the Lord Jesus, who hath helped me to reject the wages of unrighteousness hitherto, will also help me still, so that I shall distribute that which God hath given me FREELY, and not for filthy lucre's sake.'[4] How does this contrast with the description of the state clergy, before the triers were appointed.[5]

Favoured by the kind assistance of Charles Bowden, the secretary to the Society of Friends, access was afforded me to the extensive library in Devonshire House, and upon collation of Bunyan's quotations with the original editions of Burrough's exceedingly rare tracts, my gratification was great to find that every extract made by John Bunyan was perfectly faithful.

Edward Burrough, called a son of thunder and of consolation, answered both these treatises of Bunyan's,--denying, on the part of the Quakers, many of the charges made against them, as connected with the Ranters. He was a man of great talent--fearless, devoted, and pious. He became extensively useful; and like thousands of most excellent men, was sacrificed at the shrine of that fanatical church over which the profligate and debauched Charles the Second was the supreme head. He died in the prime of life, receiving the crown of martyrdom, when his happy spirit ascended from Newgate in 1662: aged 28 years.

No sect was so severely tormented as the Quakers. A fanatical clergyman, Edward Lane, in a book called 'Look unto Jesus,' 1663, thus pours forth his soul, breathing out cruelty--'I hope and pray the Lord to incline the heart of his majesty our religious King, to suppress the Quakers, that none of them may be suffered to abide in the land.' A prayer as full of cruelty against a most peaceful and valuable part of the community, as it was hypocritical in calling a debauched and profligate man [Charles the Second] 'our religious king.'

Controversy was carried on in those days with extreme virulence; learned and unlettered men alike used violent language, which, in this enlightened and comparatively happy age, is read with wonder. Burrough called his answer 'The Gospel of Peace contended for in the spirit of meekness and of love.' He meekly commences with--'How long, ye crafty fowlers, will ye prey upon the innocent; how long shall the righteous be a prey to your teeth, ye subtle foxes; your dens are in darkness, and your mischief is hatched upon your beds of secret whoredoms.' He says, 'I own the words but I deny thy voice.' Such was the unhallowed spirit of controversy in that age. A harsh epithet was called faithful dealing: thus, a learned clergyman, writing upon Baptism, entitled his work--'The Anabaptists ducked and plunged over head and ears--washed and shrunk in the washing'; to which an equally learned Baptist replied, in his 'Baby Baptism mere Babyism.' All this unseemly violence has passed away, and with it much of the virulence of persecution; soon may it pass away altogether, only to be pointed at as the evidence of a barbarous age. We now look back to cruelties perpetrated in the times of Bunyan by the national religion, as a stigma upon human nature. 'What a church is this of yours, to be defended by gaols, and prisons, and whips, and stocks, and violent dealing.' 'Let us fairly try our spiritual weapons, and not carnal cruel tortures.' 'Let us not hurt or imprison each other, nor put in the stocks, nor cruelly whip and lacerate each others' bodies; but let us thrash deceit, whip and beat that and all false doctrines': these were the breathings of our pilgrim forefathers,--it is the language of common sense and of real religion. May such sentiments spread, and soon cover the earth!--GEO. OFFOR.

FOOTNOTES:

1. George Fox's Journal, folio, p. 144.

2. See Burrough's Works, p. 304.

3. Page 201.

4. Page 201.

5. Page 178.

THE AUTHOR TO THE READER.

Seeing the Lord hath been pleased to put it into my heart, to write a few things to thee (Reader) touching those things which are most surely believed by all those that are, or shall be saved (Luke 1:1; Acts 13:38). I think it meet also, to stir up thy heart by way of remembrance, touching those things that are the hindrances of thy believing the things that are necessary to the welfare of thine immortal soul. And indeed, this is the only thing necessary; it is better to lose all that ever thou hast, than to have thy soul and body for ever cast into hell; And therefore, I beseech thee to consider with me a few things touching the stratagems, or subtle temptations of the devil, whereby he lieth in wait, if by any means he may, to make thee fall short of eternal life (1 Peter 5:8).

And first of all, he doth endeavour by all means to keep thee in love with thy sins and pleasures, knowing that he is sure of thee, if he can but bewitch thee to live and die in them (1 Cor 6:9,10; 2 Thess 2:12). Yea, he knows that he is as sure of thee, as if he had thee in hell already (John 3:19). And that he might accomplish his design on thee in this particular, he laboureth by all means possible to keep thy conscience asleep in security and self-conceitedness, keeping thee from all things that might be a means to awaken and rouse up thine heart. As first, he will endeavour to keep thee from hearing of the word, by suggesting unto [thee] this and the other worldly business which must be performed; so that thou wilt not want excuse to keep thee from the ordinances of Christ, in hearing, reading, meditation, &c., or else, he seeks to disturb, and distract thy mind when thou art conversant in these things, that thou canst not attend to them diligently, and so they become unprofitable; or else if thou art a little more stirred, he labours to rock thee asleep again, by casting thee upon, and keeping thee in evil company, as among rioters, drunkards, jesters, and other of his instruments, which he employeth on purpose to keep thee secure, and so ruin thy soul and body for ever and ever.

If not thus, then peradventure he will seek to persuade thee it is but a melancholy fit, and will put thee upon the works of thy calling, or thy pleasures, or phys; or some other trick he will invent, such as best agreeth with thy nature. And thus thy heart is again deaded, and thou art kept in carnal security, that thou mightest perish for ever. But if notwithstanding these, and many cunning slights more which might be named, he cannot so blind, and benumb thy conscience, but that it doth see and feel sin to be a burden, intolerable and exceeding sinful; Then in the second place, his design is to drive thee to despair, by persuading thee that thy sins are too big to be pardoned; he will seek by all means possible to aggravate them by all the circumstances of time, place, person, manner, nature, and continuance of thy sins, he will object in thy soul, thou hast out-sinned grace, by rejecting so many exhortations, and admonitions, so many reproofs, so many tenders of grace; hadst thou closed in with them it had been well with thee, but now thou hast stood it out so long, that there is no hope for thee: thou mightest have come sooner, if thou didst look to be saved, but now it is too late. And withal, that he might carry on his design upon thee to purpose, he will be sure to present to thy conscience, the most sad sentences of the scripture; yea, and set them home with such cunning arguments, that, if it be possible, he will make thee despair, and make away thyself, as did Judas.

But if he be prevented in this his intended purpose; the next thing he doth beset thee with, is to make thee rest upon thine own righteousness, telling thee, that if thou wilt needs be saved, thou must earn heaven with thy fingers' ends; and it may be, he represents to thy soul such a scripture; 'If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted?' And thou having (but in the strength of nature) kept thyself from thy former grosser pollutions, and it may be from some more secret sins, are ready to conclude, now thou dost well; now God accepts thee; now he will pardon, yea, hath pardoned thee; now thy condition is good, and so goest on till thou meetest with a searching word, and ministry, which tells thee, and discovers plainly unto thee, that thou doest all this while deceive thyself, by a vain hope and confidence; for tho' thou seek after the law of righteousness, thou hast not yet attained to the law of righteousness, nor yet canst, because thou seekest it 'not by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law' (Rom 9:31,32). Here again, thou art left in the mire, and now peradventure thou seest, that thou art not profited by the works of the law, nor thy own righteousness: And this makes thee stir a little, but in process of time, (through the subtle sleights of the devil, and the wickedness of thine own heart;) thou forgettest thy trouble of conscience, and slippest into a notion of the gospel, and the grace thereof, and now thou thinkest thyself cock-sure: Now thou art able to say, 'He that lives and dies in his sins, shall be damned for them: He that trusts in his own righteousness, shall not be saved': Now thou canst cry, 'grace, grace, it's freely by grace, it's through the death of the man Christ Jesus, that sinners do attain unto eternal life' (Heb 9:14). This, I say, thou hast in the notion, and hast not the power of the same in thine heart, and so it may be thine head is full of the knowledge of the scriptures, though thine heart be empty of sanctifying grace. And thus thou dost rejoice for a time. Yet because thou hast not the root of the matter within thee, in time of temptation thou fallest away (Luke 8:13).

Now being in this condition, and thinking thyself to be wondrous well, because of that notion of the truth, and that notion thou hast in the things of God: I say, being in this state, thou art liable to these dangers.

First, Thou art like to perish if thou die with this notion in thine head, except God out of his rich grace do work a saving work of grace and knowledge in thy heart; for know this, thou mayest understand glorious mysteries, and yet be a cast-away (1 Cor 13:1-3). Or else,

Secondly, Thou art liable to the next damnable heresy that the devil sendeth into the world. See and consider Luke 8:13; 2 Timothy 2:18. I say, thou dost lie liable to be carried away with it, and to be captivated by it; so that at last, through the delusions of the devil, thou mayest have thy conscience seared as with an hot iron, so hard, that neither law, nor gospel, can make any entrance thereinto, to the doing of thee the least good. And indeed, who are the men that at this day are so deluded by the quakers, and other pernicious doctrines; but those who thought it enough to be talkers of the gospel, and grace of God, without seeking and giving all diligence to make it sure unto themselves? 'And for this cause God' [shall send] hath sent 'them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: That they all might be damned, who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness,' as it is written (2 Thess 2:11,12). And indeed if you mark it, you shall see, that they be such kind of people, who at this day are so carried away with the quakers' delusions; namely, a company of loose ranters, and light notionists, with here and there a legalist, which were shaking in their principles from time to time, sometimes on this religion, sometimes on that.[1] And thus these unstable souls are deluded and beguiled at last (2 Peter 2:14). So that these who before (as one would have thought) had something of God in them, are now turned such enemies to the glorious truths of the gospel, that there are none so obstinately erroneous as they. And indeed it is just with God, to give them over to 'believe a lie' (2 Thess 2:11), who before were so idle that they would not receive the truth of God into their hearts, in the love of it. And to be bewitched by the devil to obey his temptations, and be damned, who would not obey the truth, that they might be saved (Gal 3:1).

But you will say, what lies are those, that the devil beguileth poor souls withal? I shall briefly tell you some of them, but having before said, that they especially are liable to the danger of them, who slip into high notions, and rest there; taking that for true faith which is not. I shall desire thee seriously to consider this one character of a NOTIONIST. Such an one, whether he perceives it or not, is puffed up in his fleshly mind, and advanceth himself above others, thinking but few may compare with him for religion and knowledge in the scriptures, but are ignorant and foolish in comparison of him: (Thus knowledge puffeth up, (1 Cor 8:1)) whereas when men receive truth in the love of the truth, the more the head and heart is filled with the knowledge of the mystery of godliness, the more it is emptied of its own things, and is more sensible of its own vileness, and so truly humbled in its own eyes.

And further, a notionist, though he fall from his former strictness and seeming holiness, and appear more loose, and vain in his practices, yet speaks as confidently of himself, as to assurance of salvation, the love of God, and union with God, as ever. But now to return, and declare some of those lies which the devil persuades some of these men to believe.

I. That salvation was not fully, and completely wrought out for poor sinners by the man Christ Jesus, though he did it gloriously (Acts 13:38,39), by his death upon the cross, without the gates of Jerusalem (Heb 13:12 compared with John 19:19,20).

II. This is another of his lies wherewith he doth deceive poor sinners, bidding them follow the light that they brought into the world with them, telling them, that light will lead them to the kingdom; for (say they) it will convince of sin, as swearing, lying, stealing, covetousness, and the rest of the sins against the law (Rom 3:20). But 'the law is not of faith' (Gal 3:13). And then I am sure, that it, with all its motions and convictions, is never able to justify the soul of any poor sinner. 'For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them' (Gal 3:10), but that no man is justified by the law is evident, 'for, The just shall live by faith' (v 11). Now because I am not altogether ignorant of the delusion of the devil touching this grace of faith also, I shall therefore in short give thee (reader) a brief, yet true description from the scripture. 1. What true justifying faith is, and what it lays hold upon. 2. I shall shew who it doth come from. 3. That every one hath it not. 4. What are the fruits of it.

1. First therefore, true faith is a fruit, work, or gift of the Spirit of God (Gal 5:22; 2 Thess 1:11; 1 Cor 12:9) whereby a poor soul is enabled through the mighty operation of God (Col 2:12) in a sense of its sins and wretched estate to lay hold on the righteousness, blood, death, resurrection, ascension, intercession, and coming again of the Son of God which was crucified without the gates of Jerusalem, for eternal life (John 3:16-18 compared with Matt 3:17; Gal 2:20; Rom 5:8-10; Rom 3:25; Acts 16:31; Heb 13:12) according to that saying in Hebrews 11:1 'Now faith is the substance of things hoped for,' and 'the evidence of things not seen,' that is, the things that are hoped for faith sees, lays hold upon, and embraces them (Heb 11:13) as if they were present; yea, it seals up the certainty of them to the soul. Therefore saith the Apostle, it is the evidence, or testimony, or witness, of those things that are not seen as yet with a bodily eye; which are obtained by the blood of the man Christ Jesus (Heb 9:14 compared with Heb 10:12,19,20) by which the soul sees as in a glass the things that God hath laid up for them that fear him (1 Cor 13:12; 2 Cor 3:18).

2. If you would know who this faith comes from, read Ephesians 2:8 'For by grace ye are saved [saith the scripture] through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God.' Again, in Philippians 1:29 it is thus written: 'For unto you [that are believers] it is given in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also to suffer for his sake'; And thus much do the Apostles hold forth to us in their prayer, or request to the Lord Jesus, when they say, 'Lord increase our faith' (Luke 17:5), and he is therefore called 'the author and finisher of our faith' (Heb 12:2). Also we find in James 1:17 that 'Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights,' &c., and therefore faith comes from God, for true justifying faith is a good gift, and perfect in respect of the author God, in respect of its object, Christ; and in respect of the nature, though not in respect of the degree, and measure of it in us: even as a grain of gold, is as perfect gold, as a pound of gold, though not so much.

3. All men have not faith, this the Apostle witnesseth in so many words as we find (2 Thess 3:2; Deut 32:20). Also in Timothy 1:15 'Unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure,' &c. It appeareth also in this, that all do not attain salvation, which they must needs do if they had true justifying faith (compare Luke 13:24 and 1 John 5:19 with Mark 16:16. And Heb 4:3 with vv 6 and 11 'they that believe shall be saved').

4. The fruits of it are, (1.) to purify the heart (Acts 15:9; 1 John 3:3), and that, as I said before, by laying hold on what Jesus Christ had done and suffered for sinners (Acts 13:38,39). (2.) It fills the soul with peace and joy, in that it lays hold on the things that are obtained for it (Rom 5:1; 2 Tim 1:9,10; 1 Peter 1:8). (3.) It makes the soul to wait patiently, for the glory that is to be revealed at the second appearing of the man Christ Jesus, whom God hath raised from the dead, which hath also delivered it from the wrath to come, as in Timothy 2:13, 14; 1 Peter 4:13 and 5:1, 4; 1 Thessalonians 1:10.

Quest.--But how (may some say) doth the devil make his delusions take place in the hearts of poor creatures?

Ans. 1.--Why, first, He labours to render the doctrine of the Lord Jesus, and salvation by him alone, very odious and low: and also his ordinances, as hearing, reading, meditation, use of the scriptures, &c. telling poor sinners that these things are but poor, low, carnal, beggarly, empty notions; preached up by the clergymen, who are the scribes and pharisees of this generation; who have the letter, but not the Spirit of God in them; which lead men into the form, but not into the power of the Lord Jesus: And with this persuasion, he also represents the ungodly and base carriage, or behaviour, of some, who have taken in hand to preach the doctrine of the Lord Jesus Christ, and thereby he doth render the gospel of our Lord Jesus the more contemptible and base. But woe, woe, woe, be to them by whom such offences come (Matt 18:7; Luke 17:1,2).

Ans. 2. He pretends to lead them up into some higher light, mysteries, and revelations of the Spirit, into which a very few have attained or can attain, also bewitching their affections, and taking them with an earnest pursuit after these his pretended truths; persuading them, that they shall be as God himself, able to discern between good and evil (Gen 3:5). And in this he is exceeding subtle and expert, as having practised it ever since the days of Adam. These things being thus considered, and in some measure hungered after, and the rather because they are good (as they think) to make one wise (Gen 3:6). The poor soul is all on the sudden possessed with a desperate spirit of delusion, which carries it away headlong with some high, light, frothy notions, and spiritual wickedness (which drown it in perdition and destruction) that doth feed and tickle the heart a while, to the end it may make way for a farther manifestation of itself in the poor deluded soul; which when it hath attained to, it doth then begin to bring the soul into a clearer sight of those things, which it was loth it should know at the first; but having fitted the soul by degrees for a further possession of itself, at last it begins to hold forth its new gospel; shewing the soul a new Christ, and new scriptures. The new and false Christ, is a Christ crucified within, dead within, risen again within, and ascended within, in opposition to the Son of Mary, who was crucified without, dead without, risen again without, and ascended in a cloud away from his disciples into heaven without them (Acts 1:9-11).

Now this new and false Christ, hath a new and false faith belonging to his gospel, which faith is this, to apprehend this Christ crucified within, dead within, risen again within, and ascended within: But ask them for a scripture that doth positively prove their doctrine, they also have a scripture, but it is within, it doth bear witness within, and if they had not that, (though that be of the devil's making) I am sure they would have none out of God's holy scriptures, for they will allow of no crucified Christ, but he that was crucified without the gates of Jerusalem (Heb 13:12; John 19:17,18). Dead and buried in the sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea (John 19:38-41). Was raised again out of that sepulchre into which Joseph had laid him (John 20:1-12). Who went before his disciples into Galilee (Mark 16:7). And to Emmaus (Luke 24:15). Shewed them his hands and his feet, where the nails had gone through (Luke 24:39,40). Did eat and drink with them after his resurrection: Was seen of them on earth forty days after his resurrection (Acts 1:3). And after that ascended away in a cloud, out of the sight of his disciples into heaven (Acts 1:9-11). Which Christ ever lives to make intercession for us (Heb 7:25). Who will come again also at the end of the world to judgment (Acts 10:42, 17:31; 2 Peter 3:10,11). Who also is the same that hath obtained eternal redemption for us (Acts 13:37-39; Rom 3:25; Eph 1:7; Rev 1:5; Heb 1:2, 9:14). This I say, or rather the scriptures say, is God's Christ (Matt 16:16). In whom he is well pleased (Matt 3:17). Neither doth God own any other, or allow of any other: For there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved, than the name of Jesus of Nazareth (Acts 4:10 compared with vv 11,12). But as I told you before, the way to be thus deluded, is first to render God's Christ odious and low, with a pretence of some further light and revelations; and thus professing themselves to be wise, they became fools (Rom 1:22).

Quest.--But you will say, doth not the scripture make mention of a Christ within? (Col 1:27; 2 Cor 13:5; Rom 8:10).

Ans.--I answer, God's Christ was, and is, true God and true man; he was born of the Virgin Mary, true God, and true man (Matt 1:23). 'And they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us,' or God in our nature, according to 1 Timothy 3:16 'God was manifested in the flesh': And John 1:14 'the word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.' And in Hebrews 2:14 'Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he,' that is, God (Heb 1:8), 'also himself likewise took part of the same, that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil.' Now as he was thus true God, and true man, so he became our redeemer and Saviour. Compare the first and second chapters to the Hebrews together, and you may clearly see that this is a glorious truth, that he who is the first and the last (Rev 1:17,18, 2:8) humbled himself, and made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And was this all? No. He humbled himself unto death, even the death of the cross (Phil 2:7,8 compared with Rev 1:17,18 and Rev 2:8 with Gal 1:4). Now after this Christ of God, true God and true man, had wrought out eternal redemption for us poor miserable sinners (Heb 9:14 compared with 1 Tim 1:15). I say, after he had done this, he ascended up into heaven, and there ever lives to make intercession for us. Now this Christ, having thus completely wrought out our salvation, sends his disciples abroad to preach the same to poor sinners (Acts 2; 2 Cor 5:19,20) and so many as were ordained to eternal life, when they heard the word, or the gospel preached by the Apostles, which gospel was this Christ (1 Cor 1:17 compared with v 23). I say, so many as were ordained to eternal life, when they heard the word, the Holy Ghost or Spirit of Christ, fell upon them (Acts 10:44 compared with Acts 13:48) which did lead them into the redemption and glorious things that the Lord Jesus had laid up and prepared for them (John 16:13-15; 1 Cor 2:9). Which Spirit was the earnest of their inheritance, until the redemption of the purchased possession, to the praise of his glory (Eph 1:13,14). The earnest of their inheritance was a glorious encouragement to them that had it, to hope for the glory that was to be revealed at the appearing of Jesus Christ, which is the meaning of that place in Colossians 1:27. And that will be seen clearly, if we compare it with Ephesians 1:13,14 before recited. Now this Spirit, which sometimes is called the Spirit of Christ (2 Cor 13:5). This Spirit, I say, being given to all those that were ordained to eternal life, it must needs follow, that those that had not this Spirit, but did live and die without it, were not ordained to eternal life, and so were none of Christ's; but were reprobates (Rom 8:9) for the Spirit of Christ is the distinguishing character betwixt a believer and an unbeliever, he that hath it, and is led by it, is a child of God (Rom 7:4), but he that hath it not is none of Christ's.

So then, the answer that I give to the question, is this. The Spirit of Christ that is given to believers, is the earnest or hope of that inheritance that Christ hath already purchased, and is now preparing for so many as he hath given, or shall give this holy spirit unto. And for the proof hereof, read Ephesians 1:13, 14. In whom (saith the scripture) ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation. In whom also, after that ye believed, ye were sealed with the holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance; (which inheritance is the eternal redemption that was purchased by Christ for poor sinners (Heb 9:15)) until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory. Again (Gal 5:5), 'For ye through the Spirit, wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.' And (Col 1:27) the Apostle speaking of this great mystery, saith, 'To whom God would make know what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you the hope of glory'; which glory was then revealed to the saints no otherwise than by faith, as the Apostle saith, 'We rejoice in hope of the glory of God' (Rom 5:2). Which hope is begotten by the Spirit's shedding abroad the love of God in our hearts (v 5), which hope is not yet seen, that is, not yet actually enjoyed; 'For we are saved by hope: But hope that is seen is not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for? But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it' (Rom 8:24,25). And as I say, the cause of believers' hope is this, Christ, or the Spirit of Christ, in them, the hope of glory. And indeed he may well hope for glory to come, who hath already an earnest thereof given him of God, and that earnest no less than the Spirit of the Lord Jesus (Rom 8:16,17).

But now, this Spirit, which is the cause of a believer's hope, all men have not (Jude 19; Eph 2:12; Rom 8:9; John 14:16,17). Therefore what a sad doctrine is that which saith, follow the light that Christ hath enlightened every man withal, which cometh into the world; which light is the conscience, that convinceth of sins against the law; and that you may see clearly if you mind that scripture (John 8:9) which saith, That the Pharisees, [which had neither the love of God, nor his word, abiding in them (John 5:38,43)] when they had heard Christ speaking thus to them, He that is without sin among you, &c. being convicted by their own consciences, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even to the least. But the devil, that he might be sure not to miss of his design, labours by all means to render the scriptures also odious and low, telling them of the scriptures within; which Christ never taught, nor yet his disciples: But they being given up of God to a reprobate mind, have given themselves over, rather to follow the suggestions of the devil, than the holy scriptures which God hath commanded us to betake ourselves to (Isa 8:20 compared with John 5:39) which scripture is called the sword of the Spirit (Eph 6:17), which weapon our Lord Jesus himself held up, to overcome the devil withal (Matt 4:4,7,10; Luke 4:4,8,12). But this design (as I told you) the devil carries on, by pretending to shew them a more excellent way which they may attain to, if they be but wise, and follow what is made known unto them from the light within them.

But, reader, that thou mayest be able to escape the snare of this cunning hunter, I shall lay thee down some few directions, which if the Lord give thee grace to follow, thou shalt escape these WICKED DELUSIONS.

Direct. 1. And first of all, I do admonish thee to be very serious touching thine estate and condition; and examine thine own heart by the rule of the word of God, whether or no, thou hast as yet any beginnings of desiring after religion: and if thou findest that thou hast lived until now in ignorance, and hast not set thyself to remember thy Creator as thou art commanded (Eccl 12:1), then I beseech thee consider that thou art under the wrath of Almighty God, and hast been so ever since thou camest into the world (Eph 2:1,2), being then in thy first parents, those didst transgress against thy maker (Rom 5:18), 'Therefore as by the offence of one,' that is, of Adam (v 14), 'judgment came upon all men to condemnation.' Besides the many SINS thou hast committed ever since thou wast born: sins against the law of God, and sins against the gospel of the grace of God; sins against the long-suffering and forbearance of God, and sins against his judgments; sins of omission, and sins of commission, in thoughts, words, and actions: consider, I say, thy condition; yea, get a very great sense of thy sins that thou hast committed; and that thou mayest so do, beg of God to convince thee by his Holy Spirit, not only of sins against law, but also of that damning sin, the sin of unbelief.

Direct. 2. If thou by grace, art but brought into such an estate as to see thyself in a lost condition because of sin, without the Lord Jesus; then in the next place, have a care of resting on any DUTY done, though it be never so specious; I say, have a care of making any stay anywhere on this side the Lord Jesus Christ: but above all strive to believe, that that very Man that was born of the Virgin Mary, did come into the world on purpose to save thee, as well as other poor sinners: I say, thou must not be content till thou art enabled to say, 'He loved me, and gave himself for me' (Gal 2:20). And that thou mayest be sure to attain to this most precious faith, (for so it is) be much in applying the freest promises to thy own soul; yea, those that have no conditions annexed to them, as these, or other like (Rev 22:17; Jer 31:3, John 6:37 also 14:19; Hosea 14:3). I say, labour to apply to thy own soul in particular, the most glorious and freest promises in the book of God. And if at any time the devil besets thee by his temptations, (for so is his wonted manner to do, and so much the more, as he sees thee labour to get out of his reach) I say, when he assails thee with his fiery darts, be sure to act faith on the most free promises, and have a care that thou dost not enter into any dispute with him, but rather resist him by those blessed promises that are laid down in the word of God: And withal, be sure to meditate upon the blood of the man Christ Jesus, who also is the true God, and read those scriptures that do most fully and clearly speak of it (as 1 John 1:7; Eph 1:7; Heb 9:14; Rom 3:25).

Direct. 3. But if thou say (as it is often the speech of poor souls lying under a sense of sin, and the apprehensions of wrath due to it) I cannot apply the promises to mine own soul; and the reason is, because my SINS are so great, and so many. Consider, and know it for a truth, that the more and greater thou seest thy sins to be, the more cause hast thou to believe; yea, thou must therefore believe because thy sins are great: David made it an encouragement to himself, or rather the Spirit of the Lord made it his encouragement, to crave, yea to hope for pardon, because he had greatly transgressed (Psa 25:11). 'For thy name's sake, O Lord, [saith he] pardon mine iniquity; for it is great.' As if he had said, O Lord, thy name will be more glorified, the riches of thy grace will be more advanced, thy mercy and goodness will more shine, and be magnified in pardoning me who am guilty of great iniquity, than if thou pardonest many others who have not committed such heinous offences. And I dare say, the reason why thou believest not, is not because thy sins are great, but because thou dost reason too much with that wicked enemy of man's salvation, and givest way too much to the fleshly reasoning of thine own heart. For Christ hath said, 'He that cometh unto me, I will in no wise cast out' (John 6:37). And again, 'Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow' (Isa 1:18). And Christ calleth those that labour, and are heavy laden, to come to him, with promise to give them rest (Matt 11:28). Wherefore thou must not say, my sins are too big; but thou must say, because I am a great sinner; yea, because I have sinned above many of my companions, and am nearer to hell, and eternal damnation than they, because of my sins, therefore will I cry unto the Lord, and say, O Lord, pardon my sins, for they are great.

Now that thou mayest not be deceived in a matter of so great concernment, have a special care of these three things.

Caution 1. First, Have a care of putting off thy trouble of spirit the wrong way, which thou mayest do three ways; (1.) When thy conscience flieth in thy face, and tells thee of thy sins, thou dost put off convictions the wrong way, if thou dost stop thy conscience by promising to reform thyself, and lead a new life, and gettest off thy guilt by so doing: for though thou mayest by this means still and quiet thy conscience for a time, yet thou canst not hereby satisfy and appease the wrath of God: yea, saith God to such, 'Though thou wash thee with nitre, and take thee much soap, yet thine iniquity is marked before me' (Jer 2:22).

(2.) If when thou art under the guilt of thy sins, thou puttest off convictions by thy performance of DUTIES, and so satisfiest thy conscience, then also thou dost put off thy convictions the wrong way: for God will not be satisfied with anything less than the blood, righteousness, resurrection, and intercession of his own Son (Acts 4:12). And thou shouldest not satisfy thyself with any less than God would have thee to satisfy thyself withal, and that is the water of life (Isa 55:1,2) which water of life thy duties, and all thy righteousness, is not; for they are as filthy rags (Isa 64:6).

(3.) Have a care that when thou art under conviction, thou dost not satisfy thyself with a notion of the free grace of the gospel; my meaning is, do not content thyself with any measure of knowledge that thou canst attain unto, or bottom thy peace upon it, thinking thou art now well enough, because thou canst speak much of the grace of God, and his love in Christ to poor sinners. For this thou mayest have, and do; and yet be but a companion for Demas, yea, for Judas and the rest of the damned multitude: As the Apostle saith, For all this thou mayest be but as sounding brass, and as a tinkling cymbal; that is, nothing but a sound (1 Cor 13:1-3).

Caution 2. But Secondly, If thou wouldest not be deceived, then have a care to avoid false doctrines, which are according to the spirit of the devil, and not after Christ. As,

(1.) If any doctrine doth come unto thee, that tells thee, except thou art circumcised after the manner of Moses, thou canst not be saved: that is, if any man come unto thee, and tell thee, thou must do such and such works of the law, to the end thou mayest present thyself the better before God, do not receive him: For 'to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness' (Rom 4:5).

(2.) If any come unto thee, and bring such a doctrine as this; That thou mayest be saved by grace, though thou walk in the imaginations of thy own wicked heart: His doctrine also is devilish, do not receive him (Deut 29:19-23).

(3.) But if any come unto thee, and doth in truth advance the blood, righteousness, resurrection, intercession, and second coming of that very Man in the clouds of heaven, that was born of the virgin Mary; and doth press thee to believe on what he hath done (shewing thee thy lost condition without him) and to own it as done for thee in particular, and withal doth admonish thee, not to trust in a bare notion of it, but to receive it into thy heart, so really, that thy very heart and soul may burn in love to the Lord Jesus Christ again: and doth also teach thee, that the love of Christ should and must constrain thee, not to live to thyself: But to him that loved thee, and gave himself for thee (2 Cor 5:14,15; Eph 4:21-24; 1 Cor 7:23). 'Ye are bought with a price; be not ye the servants of men.' If his conversation be also agreeable to his doctrine, a believing, honest, loving self-denying, courteous conversation, (he also is a true Christian). Receive that doctrine and receive it really; for it is the doctrine of God, and of Christ (Gal 4:4, 1:4; Eph 1:7; Rev 1:5; Acts 13:38; John 1:29; Acts 4:12, 10:40-42; 1 Thess 1:10; Mark 13; 2 Peter 1:5-10). Considering the end of their conversation Jesus Christ, yesterday, and to-day, and the same for ever (Heb 13:7,8).

Caution 3. Again, If thou wouldest not be deceived, then beware of slighting any known truth that thou findest revealed, or made known to thee in the gospel; but honour and obey it in its place, be it (as thou thinkest) never so low (John 14:15).

(1.) Have a care that thou do not undervalue, or entertain low thoughts of God, Christ the Son of Mary, and the holy scriptures, but search them (John 5:39). And give attendance to the reading of them (1 Tim 4:13). For, I will tell thee, he that slights the scriptures, doth also slight him of whom they testify. And I will tell thee also, that for this cause God hath given up many to strong delusions, that they might believe a lie: 'that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness' (2 Thess 2:11,12).

(2.) Therefore I say unto thee, In the name of the Lord Jesus, the Son of Mary, the Son of God, the very creator of heaven and earth, and all things that are therein; have a care of thyself; for the devil doth watch for thee day and night (1 Peter 5:8). Thine own heart also doth labour to deceive thee, if by any means it may (Jer 17:9). Therefore do not thou trust it; for if thou do, thou wilt not do wisely (Prov 28:26). I say therefore, have a care that thou labour in the strength of the Lord Jesus, to escape all these things; for if thou fall into any one of them, it will make way for a farther income of sin and the devil, through whose deceitfulness thy heart will be hardened, and thou wilt be more incapable of receiving instruction, or reaping advantage, by and from the ordinances of Jesus Christ: the rather therefore, give all diligence to believe in the Christ of God, which is the Son of Mary, and be sure to apply all that he hath done, and is doing, unto thyself, as for thee in particular; which thing if thou dost, thou shalt never fall.

And now, reader, I shall also give thee some few considerations, and so I shall commit thee to the Lord.

Consider, 1. That God doth hold out his grace, and mercy freely, and that to every one (Rev 22:17; Isa 55:1-7).

Consider, 2. That there is no way to attain to this free mercy and grace, but by him that was born of the Virgin Mary; for he himself saith, 'I am the way, and the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father but by me' (John 14:6 compared with Matt 1:20,21).

Consider, 3. If thou strivest to go over any other way, thou wilt be but a thief and a robber (John 10:1 compared with 9). And know that none of these (so continuing) shall enter into the kingdom of heaven (1 Cor 6:9,10).

Consider, 4. That if the devil should be too hard for thee, and deceive thee, by persuading thee to embrace, or entertain a new gospel, which neither Christ nor his disciples did allow of, it would make thee gnash teeth when it is too late.

Consider, 5. That though thou hast been deluded by Satan to this day, yet if now thine eyes be opened to see and acknowledge it, though as yet thou hast been either exceedingly wicked (1 Tim 1:13), or an idle (Matt 20:6,7) lukewarm, hypocritical professor (Rev 3:17-19); and hast stood it out to the last (Eze 18:20-22); for all this there is hope; and if now thou receive the truth in the love of the truth, being as willing to be rid of the filth of sin, as the guilt of it, thou shalt be saved.

Consider, 6. That the Lord will call thee to judgment for all thy sins past, present, and what else thou shalt practise hereafter, especially for thy rejecting and trampling on the blood of his Son, the Man Christ Jesus: And if thou dost not agree with thine adversary, now, while thou art in the way, 'Lest he hale thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and the officer cast thee into prison. I tell thee, thou shalt not depart thence, till thou hast paid the very last mite' (Luke 12:58,59).

And therefore I beseech thee to consider; Here is at this time life and death, heaven and hell, everlasting joy, and everlasting torment set before thee. Here is also the way to have the one, and the way to escape the other. Now if the Lord shall do thee any good by what I have spoken, I hope it will be a means to stir me up to thank the Lord that ever he did use such a sinner as I am, in the work of his gospel. And here I shall close up what I have said, desiring thee (if thou be a christian) to pray for him who desires to continue.

Thy servant in the Lord Jesus Christ, though less than the least of all saints,

JOHN BUNYAN

FOOTNOTE:

1. The word 'quakers' must not be misunderstood as referring to the society of friends, but to some deluded individuals calling themselves quakers; the friends were not formed into a society for some years after this was written--Ed.

THE EPISTLE WRIT BY MR. BURTON, MINISTER AT BEDFORD

TO THE READER,

Reader, thou hast in this small treatise, set before thee, the several pieces of that great and glorious mystery, Jesus Christ, God manifested in the flesh: And if thou art enlightened by the Spirit of Christ, here thou mayest see by that Spirit how Jesus Christ the Son of God, the Son of Mary, is both true God and true Man, both natures making but one Christ, one Jesus, as Philippians 2:5-9 where speaking first of his being God, and then of his taking upon him the nature of man; afterwards in the 8th and 9th verses, he saith, he (meaning this Jesus) humbled himself, &c., and God (meaning the Father) hath highly exalted him, &c. speaking of both natures God and man as together making but one Christ; who is the Saviour, and is to be believed and trusted in for salvation not only as God, but as man also; and those who do not thus make him the object of their faith, will surely fall short of pardon of sin, and of salvation; 'through this man [speaking of Christ as crucified at Jerusalem] is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins' (Act 13:38). And saith he, there is 'one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus' (1 Tim 2:5); and this discovers the damnable errors of those commonly called Socinians, who on the one hand deny him that was born of the Virgin Mary to be true God as well as true Man: And this is also quite contrary to those commonly called Familists, Ranters, Quakers, or others, who on the other hand either deny Christ to be a real Man without them, blasphemously fancying him to be only God manifest in their flesh; or else make his human nature with the fulness of the godhead in it, to be but a type of God, to be manifest in the saints, and so according to their wicked imagination, his human nature was to be laid aside after he had offered it up on the cross without the gate at Jerusalem, contrary to Acts 1:1-3, 9-11 compared with the last chapter of Luke, vv 39, 40, 50, 51 where it is clearly held forth, that the man Christ rose again out of the grave, with the same body which was crucified and laid in the grave, and was taken up above the clouds into heaven with the same real body, and that he shall again descend form heaven in that same glorious body of flesh, as Acts 1:9-11. And this sure truth of Christ being the Saviour and Mediator, as Man, and not only as God, will also shew serious believers what to think of some, who though they will not (it may be) deny that Christ is a real man without them in the heavens as well as God, yet do own him to be the Saviour only as God, first dwelling in that flesh that was born of the Virgin, and then dwelling in saints, and thus both beginning and perfecting their salvation within them, and so indeed do hold Christ as Man, to be only (I say to be only) the saved or glorified one of God, together with the saints his members, only something in another and more glorious manner and measure than the saints; and these high flown people are in this very like to Familists and Quakers, undervaluing the Lord Jesus Christ, God-man, and though they may speak much of Christ, yet they do not rightly and savingly lay him for their foundation.

Now as a help against all these dangerous things, thou hast here the main things of Christ laid down before thee briefly, and fully proved by the scriptures:

First, Of his being true God out of flesh from eternity, and then of his taking flesh, or the nature of man upon him in the womb of the Virgin, and so his fulfilling the law, his dying for sins at Jerusalem, his rising again without, his ascending into heaven without, and not into a fancied heaven only within, as some say; his interceding in heaven for all his, and his coming again in his body of flesh to judge the world. And if thou art yet in a state of nature, though covered over with an outside profession, here thou mayest find something (if the Spirit of Christ meet thee in reading) to convince thee of the sad condition thou art in, and to shew thee the righteousness thou art to fly to by faith, and to trust in for salvation, when convinced of sin; which is a righteousness wrought by that God-man Jesus Christ without thee, dying without thee at Jerusalem for sinners: here also thou mayest see the difference between true and false faith. If thou art a true believer, as these things are the foundation of thy faith, so they may be of great use for thee to mediate upon, and to exercise thy faith in, particularly in mediation, and in this way to seek daily for a higher faith in these truths, to be given into thy heart from heaven; and there is a great need of this, for though these truths be commonly known amongst professors to the notion of them, yet very few know or believe them aright: nay, it may well be said in this age, that, if the faith of the true saints was well sifted, and tradition, notion, and the apprehensions of their own reason and fancy was sifted out, most of them would be found to have very little knowledge of, and faith in, these common truths.

Secondly, These truths being put thus together, and plainly proved by the scriptures, may be a great help (through the Spirit concurring) to strengthen thee against all those damnable heresies which are spread abroad, which deny the Lord Jesus Christ either plainly, or more cunningly and mysteriously. And

Thirdly, The more thou art rooted and set down from heaven in the faith of these truths of Christ, to believe fully the glorious reality of them, and their interest in them, the more heavenly peace and joy thou wilt have (1 Peter 1:7,8) and also thou wilt hereby attain the more true holiness and purity of heart and life, 'purifying their hearts by faith' (Acts 15:9). And then the more thou hast of the right faith of Christ, and of his things in thy heart, the more strong and valiant wilt thou be in spirit, to do any work private or public for Jesus Christ, like Stephen, who being full of faith, and of the Holy Spirit, was also full of power (Acts 6:8).

In this book thou hast also laid down from the scriptures, how Jesus Christ is without the saints as Man, and yet dwelleth within them, that is, something of his divine nature or his blessed Spirit dwells within them, which Spirit is sometime called, The Spirit of Christ (Rom 8:9). He that hath not the Spirit of Christ, &c. and sometime called Christ, 'If Christ be in you' &c. (Rom 8:10). And also how we may know whether it be Christ and the Spirit of Christ within, or a false spirit calling itself Christ, and that is thus; If it be indeed Christ within, that is, the Spirit of Christ God-man; why then it teaches that man or woman in whom it is, to apply, and trust in Christ without for salvation; Christ as born of the Virgin Mary, as fulfilling the law without them, as dying without the gate of Jerusalem as a sacrifice for sin; it teaches them to trust in the Man Christ as rising again out of the grave without them, as ascending into, and interceding in heaven without for them; and as to come from that heaven again in his flesh to judge the world. Thus the man Christ himself saith, 'When he [the Spirit of truth] is come, &c. he shall glorify me' (John 16:13,14). He shall make you more to prize, admire and glorify me, who am both God and man, and who shall be absent from you touching my body. Then follows, for he shall take of mine (of my glorious things) and shew them to you; he shall take my divine and human nature, my birth, my person and offices, my obedience, death, satisfaction, my resurrection, ascension and intercession, and of my second coming in the clouds with my mighty angels to judgment, and shall shew them, or clear them up to you: He shall take of my salvation, which I have wrought for you in my own person without you: And he shall take of my glory and exaltation in the heavens, and shew to you. Now to mind this one thing, and to be set down in a right understanding of it, by the Spirit, from the scriptures, will be of great concernment to thee and me; for, for want of this, many professors have split themselves, some looking only on what Christ hath done and suffered without them, resting in an historical, traditional, and indeed a fancied faith of it, without looking for the Spirit of Jesus Christ to come with power into their hearts, without which they cannot rightly know, nor rightly believe in Christ the Son of God without them, so as to have any share or interest in him, 'If any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his' (Rom 8:9). Others have been depending too much upon something they call Christ, and the righteousness of Christ within them, in opposition to Christ and his righteousness without them, from which all true saints have their justification and comfort, it being received through the operation of the Spirit which dwells in them; and however these may talk much of Christ within them, yet it is manifest, that it is not the Spirit of Christ, but the spirit of the devil; in that it doth not glorify, but slight and reject the man Christ and his righteousness which was wrong without them: Reader, in this book thou wilt not meet with high flown airy notions, which some delight in, counting them high mysteries, but the sound, plain, common, (and yet spiritual and mysterious) truths of the gospel, and if thou art a believer, thou must needs reckon them so, and the more, if thou hast not only the faith of them in thy heart, but art daily living in the spiritual sense and feeling of them, and of thy interest in them. Neither doth this treatise offer to thee doubtful controversial things, or matters of opinions, as some books chiefly do, which when insisted upon, the weightier things of the gospel have always done more hurt than good: But here thou hast things certain, and necessary to be believed, which thou canst not too much study. Therefore pray, that thou mayest receive this word which is according to the scriptures in faith and love, not as the word of man, but as the word of God, without respect of persons, and be not offended because Christ holds forth the glorious treasure of the gospel to thee in a poor earthen vessel, by one who hath neither the greatness nor the wisdom of this world to commend him to thee; for as the scripture, saith Christ, (who was low and contemptible in the world himself) ordinarily chooseth such for himself, and for the doing of his work (1 Cor 1:26-28). Not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble are called: But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world, &c. This man is not chosen out of an earthly, but out of the heavenly university, the church of Christ, which church, as furnished with the Spirit, gifts, and graces of Christ, was in the beginning, and still is, and will be to the end of the world, that out of which the word of the Lord, and so all true gospel ministers must proceed, whether learned or unlearned, as to human learning (1 Cor 12:27,28). And though this man hath not the learning or wisdom of man, yet, through grace he hath received the teaching of God, and the learning of the Spirit of Christ, which is the thing that makes a man both a Christian and a minister of the gospel. 'The Lord God hath given me the tongue of the learned,' &c. (Is 50:4 compared with Luke 4:18) where Christ, as man, saith, 'The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor,' &c. He hath, through grace taken these three heavenly degrees, to wit, union with Christ, the anointing of the Spirit, and experience of the temptations of Satan, which do more fit a man for that mighty work of preaching the gospel, than all university learning and degrees that can be had.

My end in writing these few lines is not to set up man, but having had experience with many other saints of this man's soundness in the faith, of his godly conversation, and his ability to preach the gospel, not by human art, but by the Spirit of Christ, and that with much success in the conversion of sinners when there are so many carnal empty preachers, both learned and unlearned; I say having had experience of this, and judging this book may be profitable to many others, as well as to myself: I thought it my duty upon this account (though I be very unfit for it) to bear witness with my brother to the plain and simple (and yet glorious) truths of our Lord Jesus Christ. And now reader, the Lord give thee and me a right understanding in these things, that we may live and die not with a traditional notional dead faith, but with a right spiritual lively faith of Christ in our heart, wrought by the mighty power of God; such a faith as may make Jesus Christ more real and precious to us than any thing in the world, as may purify our hearts, and make us new creatures, that so we may be sure to escape the wrath to come, and after this life enjoy eternal life and glory through the Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

Farewell, thine to serve thee in the Lord Jesus,

JOHN BURTON.

SOME GOSPEL TRUTHS OPENED, &c.

Forasmuch as many have taken in Hand to set forth their several Judgments concerning the Son of the Virgin Mary, the Lord JESUS CHRIST; and some of those many having most grossly erred from the simplicity of the Gospel, it seemed good to me, having had some Knowledge of these things, to write a few words, to the end, if the Lord will, Souls might not be so horribly deluded by those several corrupt Principles that are gone into the World concerning him.

Now, that there is such a thing as a Christ, I shall not spend much time in proving of; only I shall shew you, that he was first promised to the fathers, and afterwards expected by their children: But before I do that, I shall speak a few words concerning God's FORE-ORDAINING AND PURPOSING, THAT A CHRIST, A SAVIOUR, SHOULD BE, AND THAT BEFORE THE WORLD BEGAN. Now God in his own wisdom and counsel, knowing what would come to pass, as if it were already done (Rom 4:17). He knowing that man would break his commandments, and so throw himself under eternal destruction, did in his own purpose fore-ordain such a thing as the rise of him that should fall, and that by a Saviour, 'According as he hath chosen us in him, [meaning the Saviour] before the foundation of the world' (Eph 1:4). That is, God seeing that we would transgress, and break his commandment, did before choose some of those that would fall, and give them to him that should afterward purchase them actually, though in the account of God, his blood was shed before the world was (Rev 13:8). I say, in the account of God, his Son was slain! that is, according to God's purpose and conclusion, which he purposed in himself before the word was; as it is written (2 Tim 1:9), 'Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began.' As also, in 1 Peter 1:20, Where the Apostle speaking of Christ, and the redemption purchased by him for sinners, saith of him, 'Who verily was fore-ordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last days for you, who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead.' God having thus purposed in himself, that he would save some of them that by transgression had destroyed themselves, did with the everlasting Son of his love, make an agreement, or bargain, that upon such and such terms, he would give him a company of such poor souls as had by transgression fallen from their own innocency and uprightness, into those wicked inventions that they themselves had sought out (Eccl 7:29). The agreement also how this should be, was made before the foundation of the world was laid (Titus 1:2). The Apostle, speaking of the promise, or covenant made between God and the Saviour (for that is his meaning,) saith on this wise; 'In hope of eternal life, which God that cannot lie, promised before the world began.' Now this promise, or covenant was made with none but with the Son of God, the Saviour. And it must needs be so; for there was none with God before the world began, but he by whom he made the world, as in Proverbs 8 from verse 22 to verse 31 which was and is, the Son of his love.

This covenant, or bargain, had these conditions in it.

First, That the Saviour should take upon him flesh and blood, the same nature that the sons of men were partakers of (sin only excepted) (Heb 2:14, 4:15). And this was the will or agreement that God had made with him: And therefore when he speaks of doing the will of God (Heb 10:5) he saith, 'a body hast thou prepared me,' (as according to thy promise (Gen 3:15) which I was to take of a woman,) and in it I am come to do thy will, O God, as it is written of me in the volume of thy book (v 7).

Second, The Saviour was to bring everlasting righteousness to justify sinners withal (Dan 9:24,25). The Messias, or Saviour, shall bring in everlasting righteousness, and put an end to iniquity, as it is there written, 'To make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness.' This, I say, was to be brought into the world by the Saviour, according to the covenant, or agreement, that was between God and Christ before the world began, which God, that cannot lie, promised at that time (Titus 1:2).

Third, He was to accomplish this everlasting righteousness by spilling his most precious blood, according to the terms of the covenant, or bargain; and therefore when God would shew his people what the agreement was that he and the Saviour had made, even before the covenant was accomplished and sealed actually. See for this Zechariah 9 (where he is speaking of him that should be the Saviour,) verse 11, 'As for thee also [meaning the Saviour] by the blood of thy covenant,' or as some render it, whose covenant is by blood (which is all to one purpose) 'I [meaning God] have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water.' The meaning is this: As for thee also, seeing the covenant, or bargain that was made between me and thee before the world was, is accomplished in my account, as if it were actually and really done, with all the conditions that were agreed upon by me and thee; I have therefore, according to that agreement that was on my part, sent forth the prisoners, and those that were under the curse of my law, out of the pit wherein there is no water; seeing thou also hast completely fulfilled in my account whatsoever was on thy part to be done, according to our agreement. And thus is that place to be understood in John 17:9, 'I pray for them: I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me' (which I covenanted with thee for) 'thine they were and thou gavest them me,' (but on such and such conditions as are before-mentioned (Zech 9)). And again, 'According as he hath chosen us in him, [that is, in Christ,] before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love' (Eph 1:4). Now, seeing this was thus concluded upon by those that did wish well to the souls and bodies of poor sinners, after the world was made by them, and after they had said, 'let us make man in our image, after our likeness' (Gen 1:26). And after man, whom God had made upright, had by transgression fallen from that state into which God at first placed him, and thrown himself into a miserable condition by his transgression, then God brings out of his love that which he and his Son had concluded upon, and begins now to make forth that to the world, which he had purposed in himself before the world began (Eph 1:4,9; 2 Tim 1:9).

1. Now the first discovery that was made to a lost creature of the love of God, was made to fallen Adam (Gen 3:15). Where it is said, 'I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed'; which is the Saviour (Gal 4:4), 'It shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.' This was the first discovery of the love of God to lost man: This was the gospel which was preached to Adam in his generation; in these words was held forth to them in that generation, that which should be farther accomplished in after generations.

2. Another discovery of the love of God in the gospel, was held forth to Noah, in that he would have him to prepare an ark to save himself withal; which ark did type out the Lord that was to come, and be the Saviour of those whom he before had covenanted for with God the Father. 'And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; - - make thee an ark of gopher wood' (Gen 6:13,14, 7:1). 'The Lord said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation.'

3. God breaks out with a farther discovery of himself in love to that generation in which Abraham lived, Where he saith, 'And in thee, [that is, from thee shall Christ come through, in whom] shall all families of the earth be blessed' (Gen 12:3). This was also a farther manifestation of the good will of God to poor lost sinners; and through this discovery of the gospel, did Abraham see that which made him rejoice (John 8:56).

4. When the time was come that Moses was to be a prophet to the people of his generation, then God did more gloriously yet break forth with one type after another, as the blood of bulls, and lambs, and goats: Also sacrifices of divers manners, and of several things, which held forth that Saviour more clearly which God had in his own purpose and decree determined to be sent; for these things (the types) were a shadow of that which was to come, which was the substance (Heb 9:9,10, 10:1,5-7). Now when these things were thus done, when God had thus signified to the world, what he intended to do in after times, presently all that had faith to believe that God would be as good as his word, began to look for, and to expect that the Lord should accomplish and bring to pass what he had promised, what his hand and counsel had before determined to be done.

(1.) Now Abraham begins to look for what God had promised and signified; namely, that he would send a Saviour into the world in his appointed time, which thing being promised, Abraham embraces, being persuaded of the certainty of it; as in Hebrews 11:13. And this did fill his heart with joy and gladness, as I said before; for 'he saw it, and was glad' (John 8:56).

(2.) Jacob also, while he was blessing his sons, concerning things to come, breaks forth with these words, 'I have waited for thy salvation' (Gen 49:18). He was also put in expectation of salvation to come by this Saviour.

(3.) David was in earnest expectation of this, which was held forth by types and shadows in the law; for as yet the Saviour was not come, which made him cry out with a longing after it, 'O that the salvation of Israel were come out of Sion' (Psa 53:6). And again, 'O that the salvation of Israel were come out of Sion!' (Psa 14:7). The thing that David waited for, was not in his time come, though before his time it was promised; which makes him cry out, O that it were come, that it were come out of Sion! Where, by the way, take notice, that the true salvation and Saviour of Israel was to come out of Sion, that is, out of the church of God, touching the flesh, as it is written; A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren like unto me (Deut 18:15,18). And again, 'I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people' (Psa 89:19; Rom 9:5). 'Whoso are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever.' Christ, as concerning the flesh, did come of the fathers.

(4.) Isaiah did prophesy of this, that God would thus save his people; yea, he breaks forth with these words, 'But Israel shall be saved in the LORD with an everlasting salvation' (Isa 45:17). He also tells them how it shall be accomplished in that 53d chapter. Yea, he had such a glorious taste of the reality of it, that he speaks as though it had been actually done.

(5.) In the days of Jeremiah, this that God had promised to the fathers, was not yet accomplished; in chapter 23:5 he saith, 'Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will [mark, it was not yet done] but I will [saith God] raise unto David a righteous branch, and a king shall reign and prosper. - - In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely; and this is his name wherewith he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.'

(6.) He was also to come in Zechariah's time (Zech 3:8). Where he saith 'for, behold, I will bring forth my servant the BRANCH.'

(7.) He was not come in the time of Malachi neither, though he was indeed at that time near his coming. For he saith himself, 'Behold, I will send my messenger, [meaning John the baptist,] and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold he shall come, saith the Lord of hosts' (Mal 3:1; Isa 40:3; Luke 1:76).

(8.) Old Simeon did also wait for the consolation of Israel a long time (Luke 2:25). Where it is said, 'And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel.' That is, waiting for him that was to be the Saviour, as is clear, if you read with understanding a little farther: 'And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ' (v 26).

And thus have I in brief shewed you, 1. That there is such a thing as Christ. 2. That this Christ was promised and signified out by many things before he did come. 3. How he was waited for, and expected before the time that God had appointed in the which he should come.

The SECOND THING that I will (through the strength of Christ) prove, is this, THAT HE THAT WAS OF THE VIRGIN, IS HE THAT IS THE SAVIOUR.

FIRST, And first, I shall lay down this for a truth; That it is not any Spirit only by, and of itself, without it do take the nature of man, that can be a Saviour of man from eternal vengeance.

Or thus: That that [which] will be a Saviour of man, must in the nature of man satisfy and appease the justice and wrath of God. And the arguments that I do bring to prove it by, are these.

First, Because it was man that had offended; and justice required that man must give the satisfaction: And therefore, when he that should be the Saviour, was come, he 'took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men' (Phil 2:7; Heb 2:14). Because 'the children are partakers of flesh and blood; he also himself likewise took part of the same'; To what end? 'that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil.' And is that all? No; but also that he might 'deliver them who through fear of death, were all their lifetime subject to bondage' (v 15).

Second, The second argument is this; because, if a spirit only could have made satisfaction for the sin of mankind, and have subdued Satan for man, without the nature of man, either there had been weakness in Body when he made that promise to fallen Adam, That the seed of the woman should break the serpent's head; (for there hath been no need of and so no room for that promise) or else God having made it, would have appeared unfaithful, in not fulfilling his promise, by redeeming the world without it.

Third, If a spirit only could have made satisfaction, and so have saved man; then Christ needed not to have come into the world, and to have been born of a woman (Gal 4:4). But in that he must come into the world, and must be born of a woman, it is clear, that without this, he could not have been a Saviour: For he was made of a woman, made under the law, to this end, that he might redeem them that were under the law; implying, No subjection to this, (viz. the taking of the nature of man) no redemption from the curse of the law. But Christ hath delivered from the curse of the law (all that believe in his name) being in their nature made a curse for them.

And this is the reason, why the fallen angels are not recovered from their damnable estate, because, he did not take hold of their nature, 'For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham' (Heb 2:16).

SECOND, Now then, seeing this is the very truth of God, I shall next prove, that Jesus that was born of the virgin, to be the Saviour. And,

First, I shall prove it by comparing some places of the Old and New testament together, and by some arguments drawn from the scriptures.

1. And first, see Genesis 3:15, where he is called the seed of the woman, saying, 'I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed'; and so was Jesus (Gal 4:4) where it is said, 'God sent forth his Son, made of a woman,' or born of a woman.

2. This woman must be a virgin (Isa 7:14) where it is said, 'A virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Imanuel.' And Jesus is he that was the fulfilling of this scripture (Matt 1:22,23), 'Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a Son, and they shall call his name Imanuel.'

3. The Saviour must be of the tribe of Judah. And this Jacob prophesied of on his death-bed, saying, 'Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise,' or honour, 'thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee' (Gen 49:8).

And again (Micah 5:2), 'But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel.' Jesus also came of the tribe of Judah, and that will clearly appear, if you read (Matt 1). Matthew, he begins first with Abraham (v 2) and thence to Judah (v 3) from Judah to David (v 6) from David to Zorobabel (v 13) then to Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus (v 16).

Now Mary was one of the same house also, and for this consider, Jesus came from the loins of David (Matt1); but that he could not do, if Mary had not been of the seed of David: For Christ came from her, not from him, for Joseph 'knew her not till she had brought forth her first-born' (Matt 1:25). Again, the angel told her, that he was the son of David, saying, 'And the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David' (Luke 1:32).

And again, The Jews knew this very well, or else they would have been sure to have laid it open before all the world; for they sought by all means to disown him. And though they did through the devilishness of their unbelief disown him, yet could they find no such thing as to question the right of his birth from Mary. If it had been to be done, they would no doubt have done it; they did not want malice to whet them on; neither did they want means so far as might help forward their malice; without manifest and apparent injury; for they had exact registers, or records of their genealogies, so that, if they had had any colour for it, they would sure have denied him to have been the son of David. There was reasoning concerning him when he was with them (John 7:27,43) and I do believe, part of it was about the generation of which he came. And this was so commonly known, that the blind man that sat by the way-side could cry out, 'Jesus thou Son of David, have mercy on me.--Thou Son of David, have mercy on me' (Luke 18:38,39). It was so common, that he came from the loins of his father David according to the flesh, that it was not so much as once questioned. 'And when' Herod 'demanded of the chief priests and scribes of the people where Christ should be born. They said unto him, in Bethlehem of Judea: For thus it is written by the prophet, And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda, for out of thee shall come a governor, that shall rule my people Israel' (Matt 1:4-6). (For out of thee) mark that; if Mary had not been of Judah, Christ had not come out of Judah, but Christ came out of Judah; therefore Mary is also a daughter of Judah. And this is evident, as saith the scripture, 'for - - our Lord sprang out of Judah' (Heb 7:14).

Again, when Christ the Saviour was to come into the world, at that time the sceptre was to depart from Judah, according to the prophecy of Jacob. 'The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a law-giver from between his feet, until Shiloh come' (Gen 49:10).

Now the sceptre was then departed from those that were Jews by nature, and also the law-giver, and Herod who was a stranger, and not of Judea, was king over them, as Caesar's deputy; and Caesar Augustus imposed laws on them.

The stubborn Jews also confessed the sceptre to be departed, when before Pontius Pilate a Roman governor of Judea, they cried out against Christ: 'We have no king but Cesar' (John 19:15).

Nay farther, the Jews from that day to this, have been without a king of their own nation to govern them: they never had the sceptre swayed since by any of themselves, but have been a scattered despised people, and have been as it were liable to all dangers, and for a long time driven out from their country, and scattered over all the nations of the earth, as was prophesied concerning them (Jer 14:10; Zech 6:14,15). And yet these poor souls are so horribly deluded by the devil, that though they see these things come to pass, yet they will not believe. And one reason among many, of their being thus deluded, is this, they say that the word sceptre in Genesis 49 is not meant of a kingly government; but the meaning is, (say they) a rod, or persecutions shall not depart from Judah till Shiloh come. Now they do most grossly mistake that place; for though I am not skilled in the Hebrew tongue, yet through grace, I am enlightened into the scriptures; whereby I find that the meaning is not persecutions, nor the rod of afflictions, but a governor or sceptre of the kingdom shall not depart from Judah till Shiloh come. And that this is the meaning of the place, weigh but the very next words of the same verse, and you will find it to be the sceptre of a king that is meant; for he addeth, 'nor a law-giver from between his feet.' Mark it, The sceptre, nor a law-giver; the legislative power depending on the sceptre of the kingdom, shall not depart from Judah till Shiloh come. According to that scripture, written in Isaiah 7:16, 'For before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her kings.' Which scripture hath been fulfilled from that same time.

But a word to the Jews' exposition of the sceptre to be a rod, or persecutions; saying, that persecutions shall not depart from Judah till Shiloh come. This cannot be the meaning of the place; for the Jews have had rest oftentimes, and that before Shiloh did come; at one time they 'had rest four-score years' (Judg 3:30). Again, 'And the land had rest from war' (Josh 14:15). And again, 'And the Lord gave them rest round about, according to all that he sware unto their fathers, and there stood not a man of all their enemies before them' (Josh 21:44). 'And the land had rest forty years' (Judg 3:11). There was rest many a time from persecution and from the rod, though it were but for a season; but the sceptre, or kingdom, did not depart from Judah, and a law-giver from between his feet till Shiloh came.

Second, Again, To prove that Jesus is the Christ, it is clear from the hand of God against the Jews, for putting him to death. What was the reason why they did put him to death, but this, He did say that he was the Christ the Son of God? (Luke 22:70) 'Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.' That is, I am he as you say, I am the Son of God; yea, the only begotten Son of the Father, and I was with him before the world was (John 9:37, 17:5).

Now the Jews did put him to death for his thus owning his own; that is, for not denying of his Sonship, but making himself equal with God, therefore did they put him to death (John 19:7).

Now God did, and doth most miserably plague them to this very day, for their crucifying of him: But I say, had he not been the Christ of God, God's Son, he would not have laid sin to their charge, for crucifying him; but rather have praised them for their zeal, and for taking him out of the way, who did rob God of his honour, in that he made himself equal with God, and was not. He would have praised them for doing the thing that was right, as he did Phineas the son of Eleazar, for executing judgment in his time, on the adulterer and adulteress (Num 25:8).

But in that he said he was the Son of God, and accounted it no robbery so to call himself (Phil 2:6). And seeing that they did put him to death, because he said he was the Son of God; and in that God doth so severely charge them with, and punish them for their sin in putting him to death, for saying that he was the Son of God, it is evident that he was and is the Son of God, and that Saviour that should come into the world. For his blood hath been upon them to this very day for their hurt, according to their desire (Matt 27:25).

Again, Jesus himself doth in this day hold forth that he is the Christ, where he saith, 'The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand' (Mark 1:15). What time is this that Jesus speaks of? Surely, 'tis that of Daniel's seventy weeks, spoken of in chapter 9:24 where he saith, 'Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people - - - to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation' or satisfaction 'for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, - - and to anoint the most Holy.' This time, that here Daniel speaks of, is it that Christ saith hath an end; and the argument that he brings to persuade them to believe the gospel, is this, 'The kingdom of God is at hand,' (according as was prophesied of it by Daniel) 'repent, and believe the gospel.' Repent, and believe that this is the gospel; and that this is the truth of God; consider, that Daniel had a revelation of these days from the angel of God, and also the time in which it should be accomplished: namely, Seventy weeks was the determined time of the Messias his coming, from the time when the angel spake these words to Daniel: Seventy weeks, that is, about 490 years, if you reckon every day in the said seventy weeks for a year: A day for a year, a day for a year; for so is the Holy Spirit's way sometimes to reckon days (Eze 4:6). And this the Jews were convinced of, when Christ saith to them, 'Ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?' (Matt 16:3). Do you not see that those things that are spoken of as forerunners of my coming, are accomplished? Do you not see that the sceptre is departed from Judah? Do you not see the time that Daniel spake of is accomplished also? There shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas: O ye hypocritical generation! (v 4).

Third, Another argument to prove that Jesus is the Christ, is this, By his power the blind see, the lame walk, the deaf hear, the dumb speak, the dead are raised up, the devils are dispossessed. In Isaiah 35:4 it is thus prophesied of him, 'Behold your God will come with vengeance, even God with a recompense; he will come and save you'; But how shall we know when he is come? Why, 'Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing; for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert' (vv 5,6). Now when John would know whether he were the Christ or no, Jesus sends him this very answer, 'Go, and shew John [saith he] again those things which you do hear and see: the blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them' (Matt 11:3-5).

Fourth, Another argument that doth prove this Jesus to be the Christ, is this, namely, he to whom it was revealed, that he should see him, though he waited long for him. So soon as ever he did but see that sweet babe that twas born of the virgin Mary, he cried out, 'Lord now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word: For mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before the face of all people'; as it is in Luke 2:26-31. The prophetess Anna also, so soon as she had seen him, 'gave thanks to the Lord, and spake of him to all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem' (vv 36-38).

Fifth, Another argument is, the sign of the prophet Jonah. He, even Jonah, was three days and three nights in the whale's belly (Jonah 1:17) and Jesus makes this very thing an argument to the Jews, that he was the true Messias, where he saith, 'An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign'; that is, they would have me to show them a sign, to prove that I am the Saviour, 'And there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonah: For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth' (Matt 12:39,40). And this, the Apostle makes mention of to be accomplished, where he says, The Jews slew Jesus, and hanged him on a tree (Acts 10:39) and laid him in a sepulchre (Matt 27). But God raised him up the third day, and shewed him openly (Acts 10:40).

Sixth, Another scripture argument to prove that Jesus is the Christ, is this, that there was not one of his bones broken; which thing was foretold and typed out by the Paschal Lamb, where he saith, 'They shall leave none of it unto the morning, nor break any bone of it' (Exo 12:46; Num 9:12), which thing was fulfilled in the Son of the virgin, (though contrary to the customs of that nation,) as it is written, 'Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him. But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they break not his legs' (John 19:32,33): 'that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken' (v 36).

Seventh, Another scripture demonstration is, in that they did fulfil the saying that was written, 'They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture' (Psa 22:18). But this was also fulfilled in Jesus, as it is written; 'Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, - - They said therefore among themselves, let us not rend it, but cast lots for it whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots' (John 19:23,24).

Eighth, Again, The scripture saith, 'they shall look upon me, whom they have pierced' (Zech 12:10). But the soldier thrust a spear into his side, That it might be fulfilled which was written, 'they shall look on him whom they pierced' (John 19:34-37).

Error 1. Now then, seeing this is the truth of God, that Jesus that was born of the virgin, is the Christ of God; how horribly are those deceived who look on Jesus the Son of Mary, to be but a shadow or type, of something that was afterward to be revealed; whereas the scriptures most lively hold him forth to be the Christ of God, and not a shadow of a spirit, or of a body afterwards to be revealed, but himself was the very substance of all things that did any way type out Christ to come; and when he was indeed come, then was an end put to the law for righteousness, or justification to every one that believeth; 'Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth,' as it is written (Rom 10:4). That is, he was the end of the ceremonial law, and of that commonly called the moral law, the substance of which is laid down (Exo 20:1-17) though that law, as handed out by Christ, still remains of great use to all believers, which they are bound to keep for sanctification, as Christ saith (Matt 5:19 to the end of the chapter). But Christ Jesus hath obtained everlasting righteousness, having fulfilled all the law of God in the body of his flesh, wherein he also suffered on the cross without the gates, and doth impute this righteousness to poor man, having accomplished it for him in the body of his flesh, which he took of the virgin (Gal 4:4). 'God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, [that is, born of the virgin] made under the law,' that is, to obey it, and to bear the curse of it, 'being made a curse for us' (Gal 3:13); to redeem them that were under the law, that is, to redeem such as were ordained to life eternal, from the curse of the law. And this he did by his birth, being made or born of a woman; by his obedience, yea, by his perfect obedience 'he became the author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him' (Heb 5:8,9); and by his doing and suffering, did completely satisfy the law and the justice of God, and bring in that glorious and everlasting salvation, without which we had all eternally been undone, and that without remedy; for without shedding of his blood there was no remission.

Error 2. Seeing Jesus Christ, the Son of the virgin Mary, was and is the Christ of God: and that salvation came in alone by him, for there is salvation in no other (Acts 4:12), then how are they deceived, that think to obtain salvation by following the convictions of the law, which they call Christ (though falsely) when alas, let them follow those convictions that do come from the law, and conscience set on work by it; I say, let them follow all the convictions that may be hinted in upon their spirits from that law, they shall never be able to obtain salvation by their obedience to it, 'for by the law is the knowledge of sin' (Rom 3:20; Gal 3:10; John 10:15; Heb 9:12). And 'It is not of works lest any man should boast,' as those fond hypocrites called Quakers would do. And again, 'If righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain' (Gal 2:21). 'But that no man is justified by the works of the law, in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith' (Gal 3:11). Which living by faith, is to apply the Lord Jesus Christ his benefits, as birth, righteousness, death, blood, resurrection, ascension, and intercession, with the glorious benefits of his second coming to me, as mine, being given to me, and for me, and thus much doth the Apostle signify, saying; 'The life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me' (Gal 2:20).

Error 3. Again, Seeing God's Christ, which was with him before the world was (John 17:5) took upon him flesh and blood from the virgin Mary, (who was espoused to Joseph the carpenter) and in that human nature yielded himself an offering for sin, (for it was the body of his flesh by which sin was purged [Col 1:22]). I say, seeing the Son of God, as he was in a body of flesh, did bring in salvation for sinners, and by this means, as I said before, we are saved, even by faith in his blood, righteousness, resurrections, &c. How are they then deceived who own Christ no otherwise than as he was before the world began, who was then without flesh and blood (for he took that in time of the virgin [Gal 4:4; Heb 2:14]). I say, they are wickedly deluded, who own him no otherwise but as he was before the world was: For in their owning of him thus and no otherwise, they do directly deny him to be come in the flesh, and are of that antichristian party which John speaks of (1 John 4:3) 'Every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come, and even now already is it in the

world.' Now because the enemy doth most notably wrest this scripture, as they do others, to their own damnation, I shall speak something to it; and therefore, when he saith, every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, is not of God, his meaning is, Every spirit that doth not confess that that Christ that was with the Father before the world was, did in the appointed time of the Father come into the world, took on him a body from the virgin, and was very man as well as very God, and in that body of flesh did do and suffer whatsoever belonged to the sons of men for the breach of the holy law of God, and impute his glorious righteousness which he fulfilled in that body of his flesh, to the souls that shall believe on what he hath done, and is adoing in the same body.

Consider 1. And that this is the mind of the Spirit of God, consider, first, he himself saith, handle me and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have, when his disciples had thought he had been but a spirit (Luke 24:39,40).

Consider 2. Now that in this flesh he died for sins: consider, secondly, that scripture which saith, 'Who his own self, [that is, the Christ that was born of the Virgin] bare our sins in his own body on the tree' (1 Peter 2:24). See Colossians 1:22 'in the body of his flesh,' saith he, 'to present you holy and unblameable, and unreprovable in his sight.' Now that he arose again from the dead, with the body of flesh wherewith he was crucified, consider, that forenamed scripture (Luke 24:39,40) spoken after his resurrection.

Now that he went away with the same body from them into heaven, consider that it is said, 'And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven' (Luke 24:50,51). This is the meaning of those words therefore; Jesus Christ is come into the flesh, that is, Jesus Christ hath come in the flesh that he took of the Virgin, hath brought us who were enthralled to the law, the devil, and sin, to liberty; and that by his obedience and death. 'Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, [saith the scripture] he, [Christ] also himself likewise took part of the same'; wherefore? 'That through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; and deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage' (Heb 2:14,15). For he 'was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification' (Rom 4:25). For he, even that man, through the power of the eternal Spirit, did offer up himself without spot to God, and thereby, or by that offering, 'obtained eternal redemption for us' (Heb 9:12,14). And therefore I say again and again, look to yourselves, that you receive no Christ except God's Christ: For he is like to be deceived that will believe every thing that calls itself a Christ. 'For many, [saith he] shall come in my name, - - and shall deceive many' (Matt 24:5).

Now having spoken thus much touching the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, I shall, according to the assistance of the Lord Jesus, proceed, and shall speak something of his godhead, birth, death, resurrection, ascension, and intercession; together with his most glorious and personal appearing the second time, which will be to raise the dead, and bring every work to judgment (Eccl 12:14).

And FIRST I shall shew you that he (Christ) is very God, co-eternal, and also co-equal with his Father. SECOND, That by this Son of Mary (which is equal with his Father) the world was made. THIRD, That he in the fulness of time, was made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were (or are) under the law; that is, was born of a woman: and in our nature (for he made himself of no reputation, and took on him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men) and in our stead he did fulfil the law in point of justification (Rom 10:4) and was crucified for our transgressions (1 Cor 1:23-25). FOURTH, That very body of the Son of Mary which was crucified, did rise again from the dead, after he had been buried in Joseph's sepulchre; that he in that very body ascended up into heaven; and in that very body shall come again to these ends, 1. To judge the quick and the dead. 2. To receive his saints to himself. 3. To pass eternal condemnation on his enemies. These things in brief I shall touch upon, according to the wisdom given me.

FIRST, And therefore that Christ is very God, I shall first prove by plain texts of scripture. Second, From the testimony of God, angels, and men, witnessed by the scriptures. Third, By several arguments drawn from scripture, which will prove the same clearly.

First, Then to prove it by the scriptures; tho' indeed the whole book of God's holy scripture, testify these things plainly to be most true, yet there be some places more pregnant and pertinent to the thing than others; and therefore I shall mention some of them: as that in Proverbs 8:22, &c. and there you shall find him spoken of under the name of wisdom, the same name that is given him in 1 Corinthians 1:24. I say in that place of the Proverbs above mentioned, you shall find these expressions from his own mouth. 'The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; when there were no fountains abounding with water. Before the mountains were settled, before the hills was I brought forth: While as yet he had not made the earth, nor the fields, nor the highest part of the dust of the world. When he prepared the heavens, I was there: when he set a compass upon the face of the depth: When he established the clouds above: when he strengthened the fountains of the deep: When he gave to the sea his decree, that the waters should not pass his commandment: when he appointed the foundations of the earth: Then I was by him, as one brought up with him: and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before him; rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth; and my delights were with the sons of men.' Also in John 1:1, 2 you have these words spoken of Christ, 'In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God.' As also in Hebrews 1:2 the Apostle being about to prove the Son of Mary to be very God, saith; He 'hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son'; which Son is the Son of Mary, as in Matthew 3, 'But [saith the Apostle (Heb 1:8)] unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever, a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom.' Again, in John 17:5 you have the words of the Son of Mary for it, saying, 'And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self, with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.' Again, he himself saith, before Abraham was, I am: And again, I and my Father are one. And in Philippians 2:5 the Apostle saith, 'Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus: who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men.' Also Revelation 2:8 Christ himself saith, I am 'the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive.' And thus have I quoted some few scriptures to prove that the Son of Mary is the true God.

Second, I shall give you the testimony of God himself touching the truth of this, viz. That Christ, the Son of the Virgin, is the true God:

1. And first see Zechariah 12:7 and there you shall find these words, 'Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts.' In this place the Lord doth call that Man his fellow, which he doth not do to any mere creature. Again, in Matthew 3:17 he calls him his beloved Son, saying, 'This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.' And in the aforesaid place of the Hebrews (ch 1) the Apostle advancing the Lord Jesus, brings in this question. 'To which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son?' (v 5). 'But unto the Son he saith' (v 8) 'Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever': And thus far of the testimony that God himself hath given of the Son of Mary, Jesus Christ.

2. The angels do shew that he is God: (1.) In that they do obey him. (2.) In that they worship him.

(1.) That they obey him, is clear, if we compare Revelation 21:9 with 22:6. In the first of these places we find, that there came one of the angels of the seven vials, which had the seven last plagues, and talked with John. He came not of himself; for in that 22nd chapter, verse 6 he saith, 'The Lord - - sent his angel to shew unto his servants, the things which must shortly be done.' Now in the 16th verse you may see who this Lord God is: He saith there, 'I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify - - these things in the churches [compare Rev 1:1]. I am the root and [as well as] the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.' I say this obedience of the angels doth testify that Jesus, which is the Son of Mary, is the true and very God; for they do obey God only.

(2.) The angels do shew that the Son of Mary, is the true God, in that they do not only obey him, but worship him also; yea, they are commanded so to do (Heb 1:6) where it is written, 'When he bringeth in the first begotten into the world, he [i.e. God,] saith, And let all the angels of God worship him,' viz. the Son of Mary. Now the angels themselves command that we worship none but God (Rev 22:8,9). When John fell down to worship the angel, the angel said, 'See thou do it not: for I am thy fellow servant, - - worship God.' Now if the angels should command to worship God, and they themselves should worship him that by nature is no god, they should overthrow themselves, in commanding one thing, and doing another, and so lose their own habitations, and be shut up in chains of darkness, to be punished with everlasting destruction from God himself at the great day. And thus much concerning the testimony of angels touching Jesus the son of Mary, the Son of God, yea, very and true God (Isa 9:6).

3. [The testimony of men witnessed by the scriptures do shew that Christ is very God.] Now followeth David his testimony among other of the saints, who witness Jesus the Son of Mary to be true God; and that you may find in Psalm 110:1 where he saith, 'The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.' Also Isaiah in the 9th chapter, verse 6 saith, 'For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, [which is not, nor ever was the heart of any believer] and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.' Again, see Peter's testimony of this Son of Mary; When Jesus asked his disciples, whom say ye that I am? Peter, as the mouth of the rest, said, 'Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God' (Matt 16:16). Also when Thomas, one of Christ's disciples, would not be persuaded by the others that they had seen the Lord, except he did also see in his hands the print of the nails, and put his fingers into the print of the nails, and thrust his hand into his side, he would not believe. Saith the Son of Mary, 'Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side; and be not faithless but believing.' And then Thomas breaks out with a mighty faith, and a glorious testimony for his master, and saith, 'My Lord, and my God' (John 20:27,28). Again, See Paul's testimony of him (Rom 9:5) where speaking of the Son of Mary, he saith, That Christ came of the Father, 'who is over all, God blessed for ever, Amen.' And the apostle John doth also witness as much (1 John 5:20) where speaking of Jesus Christ, he saith on this wise, 'And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, [Who is that? why, saith John] even in his Son Jesus Christ.' Who is he? Why, 'This is the true God, and eternal life.'

I could here also bring in the testimony of the very devils themselves as Luke 4:41, 8:28 where he is by them acknowledged to be the Son of the living God: But it is needless so to do; for we have plainly proved it already.

Third, Now followeth the several scripture arguments, which will prove that Jesus the Son of Mary is very God.

1. There is none but he that is the true God, can satisfy the justice of the true God, for the breach of his holy law; but if you compare Isaiah 53:6 with Matthew 3:17 you shall find, that Jesus the Son of Mary did give God a full and complete satisfaction for the breach of his holy law; therefore Jesus the Son of Mary must needs be the great and true God.

2. He that hath power of his own to lay down his life, and hath power of his own to take it up again, must needs be the true God: but this did Jesus the Son of Mary the virgin; therefore he must needs be the true God (John 10:17; Rom 1:4).

3. There was never any able to bear the sins of all the believers in the world, that ever were, now are, or hereafter shall be, but the true God: But Jesus, the Son of the Virgin Mary, did bear them all, 'in his own body on the tree' (1 Peter 2:24; Isa 53:6). Therefore Jesus the Son of Mary must needs be the true God as well as man.

4. There was never any mere man able, by his own power, to overcome the devil in all his temptations, but he that is also the true God (for Adam in his state of innocency was overcome by them, and fell under them:) But Jesus the Son of the Virgin did overcome them all by his own power; therefore he is very God, as well as very Man. See Genesis 3:15; Isaiah 51:9, 63:5; Matthew 4:24; Luke 4:12.

5. There was never any that did call himself the true God (and was not) which did please God in so doing. But Jesus the Son of Mary did call himself the true God, or account himself equal with God (which is all one) yet God was well pleased with him (Matt 3:17; Phil 2:6,7; John 8:29). And therefore Jesus the Son of Mary must needs be true God as well as man.

6. There was never any that had all power in heaven and in earth, but the true God. Jesus the Son of the Virgin Mary, who was espoused to Joseph, hath all power in heaven and in earth in his own hand. Therefore he is the true and great God (Matt 28:18).

7. There was never any able to keep poor souls from falling from God, saving he that is the true God. Jesus the Son of Mary did, and doth this (John 10:27-30, 17:12). Therefore he is the true and great God.

8. Never could any justly call himself the first and the last, except the true God, nor truly (as the Lord did say) I AM. But these did Jesus the Son of Mary (Rev 1:1 compared with vv 17,18; Rev 2:8 and John 8:58). Therefore Jesus must needs be true God as well as man.

9. Never was there any that could absolutely forgive sins but God (Mark 2:7; Luke 5:21). But Jesus the Son of the Virgin Mary, can forgive sins (Luke 5:20; Mark 2:5). Therefore Jesus the Son of Mary must needs be true God, as well as man.

10. The scriptures never call any the true and living God; but he that is the true God. The scriptures call Jesus, the Son of the Virgin, the true God (Isa 9:6; 1 John 5:20). Therefore he is the true and great God.

11. He that made all things, whether they be visible, or invisible, whether they be thrones or dominions, or principalities, or powers, must needs be the true